Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of liquids that makes them acquire the least surface area possible.

At liquid-air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface becomes under tension from the imbalanced forces.


It is possible to evaluate the energy level of the water thanks to the measurement of surface tension. The more molecular agitation (energy) of water increases, the more its surface tension decreases and vice versa.

The example of hot water:

When we wash the dishes, it is easier to remove dirt with warm water rather than cold water. It is thanks to the fact that water at 60 ° C has a higher energy than water at 20 ° C. When the temperature of water increases, its kinetic energy increases and its surface tension decreases.

The increase in water activity level is consistent with the decrease in it's surface tension.

Measurement of the surface tension of water (expressed in [dyn / cm]) at various temperatures:

20°C 72.75

40°C 69.59

60°C 66.18

80°C 62.61

100°C 58.85 [dyn/cm]

The vegetal cellular water is characterized by a surface tension considerably lower than water. The water extracted from the Japanese rose has a surface tension between 43 and 45 [dyn / cm] at 20 ° C. Taking into account only this value, we can say that the water extracted from Japanese Rose has a higher energy than hot water at 100 ° C.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to study the structure of molecules, the interaction of various molecules, the kinetics or dynamics of molecules and the composition of mixtures of biological or synthetic solutions or composites.

NMR's advantage is to allow both the non-destructive and the quantitative study of molecules in solution and in solid state, as well as to enable the study of biological fluids.

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY mass spectrometry (gc/MS)

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) is a technique for the analysis and quantitation of organic volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Gas chromatography (GC) is used to separate mixtures into individual components using a temperature-controlled capillary column. Smaller molecules with lower boiling points are travel down the column more quickly than larger molecules with higher boiling point.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is used to identify the various components from their mass spectra. Each compound has a unique or near unique mass spectrum that can be compared with mass spectral databases and thus identified. Through use of standards, quantitation is also possible.